__PARTICAL PHYSICS__

*The first pillar is quantum field theory. Which describes that everything is field . This theory proposed the field quanta necessarily the chunked ripples in a field that look like particle.*

*A boost to Quantum Field Theory came with Dirac Equation , a single particle equation which obeying both relativity and quantum mechanics . but this theory had some difficulties . to overcome these difficulties in 1940, An Gauge theory became produced. Which is known as the Standard Model of Particle Physics.*

*This model predict that Electromagnetic force is caused b/w two electrons by an exchange of Photons , Weak nuclear force by exchange of Bosons(W-, W+, Z) AND Strong Nuclear forces by 8 gluons.*

*And for gravity this theory assumed that Graviton particle appears.*

*The guiding principal of the standard model is that its equations are Symmetrical . All Other equations related to this are also Symmetrical .*

*These Symmetries beget forces that are carried by special particles called bosons.*

*Physicists want to unify the Strong , Weak Nuclear Force and Electromagnetic Force.*

*Later the theory of ELECTROWEAK FORCES as formulated by Sheldon Glashow , Steven Weinberg and Abdus Slam , who won the 1979 Nobel Prize in physics for their efforts .*

*The Weak Force , which is involved in radioactive beta decay , does not act on all the quarks and leptons . Each of these particles comes in mirror –image varieties , termed left-handed and right-handed , and the Beta decay Force acts only on the left-handed ones a striking fact still unexplained 50 years after its discovery. The family symmetry among the left-handed particles helps to define the electroweak theory.*

*In the initial stages , the theory had two essential shortcomings . First , It foresaw four long-range force particles –referred to as gauge bosons where as nature has but one : the photon.*

*The Other three have a short range less than about 10 root -17 meter. According to Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle , this limited range implies that the force particles must have a mass approaching 100 billon electron volts (Gev).*

*The second shortcoming is that the family symmetry does not permit masses for the quarks and leptons , yet these particles do have masses.*

*So we need to recognize that a symmetry of the laws of nature need not be reflected into the outcome of those laws.*

*Physicists Says “that the Symmetry is Broken”.*

*Later the inspiration came from a seemingly unrelated phenomena : SuperConductivity , in Which certain materials carry electric current with zero resistance at low temperatures . although the laws of electromagnetism themselves material is not. A photon gains mass within a superconductor. Thereby limiting the intrusion of magnetic fields into the material .*

*This problem is a perfect prototype for the electroweak theory . If Space is filled with a type of superconductor that affects the weak interaction rather than electromagnetism, it gives mass to the W and Z bosons and limits the range of weak interactions.*
## No comments:

## Post a Comment